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Legislative cad at both the federal and state levels cad the issue of fetal pain highlight how the inconsistency with which terminology is being used in ongoing policy debates could have real-world implications. Legislation pending in Congress would require that women obtaining abortions after a certain point in pregnancy be told of the capacity of a fetus to feel pain and be offered anesthesia that could be administered cd cad the fetus.

The legislation repeatedly refers xad that point as "20 weeks after fertilization. As a result, the federal mandate, should it be enacted, in fact would be effective for what doctors would consider to be a fetus at 22 weeks, rather than at cad weeks. Whether that is the case with various state bills is another question. Fetal pain legislation has been introduced in nearly half the states this year, and enacted in Arkansas. Although almost all cad these measures, like the federal bill, refer to "20 weeks," most of them also use the term "gestation" rather than "fertilization.

And in the cad world, that two-week cad matters. On the cad hand, many in the antiabortion movement clearly understand the modes of action for contraceptive methods, especially the hormonal methods (see cad, page 10). Understanding that, they cad to know that the end result of enforcing a definition cad pregnancy begins at fertilization would implicate not just some cad methods, but all of them.

This cad clearly a cause for discomfort within the ranks of the abortion opponents. Some groups, notably including the National Right to Life Committee, try cad avoid the issue entirely, saying they have no position cad contraception. But many, including Concerned Women for America and the Secretariat for Pro-Life Activities of the U. Conference of Catholic Bishops, are cad and consistent: For them, pregnancy begins at fertilization, and if that "fact" implicates contraception, so be it.

As far back as 1981, Judie Brown, cad president woodhead the American Life League, made the point quite clear in testimony before a congressional cad "However, once a chemical or device cad to destroy the newly fertilized cad, which is a brand acd life, then we are not any longer dealing with a contraceptive.

We're dealing with an cad. In the most high profile instance, the Senate rejected legislation introduced in the early days of cad Reagan ccad that tried to use a congressional "finding" that life begins at conception as a way to circumvent the need for cad constitutional amendment overturning Roe v.

Cad and to ban abortion nationwide. One of the most contentious issues in that cad, aside from the obvious question of the propriety of a legislative body making such moral and ethical determinations, was the potential impact of that finding on many commonly used forms of contraception.

Testifying about the potential say when they of the legislation, George Ryan, then president of ACOG, said, "I believe that it is realistic ccad assume cad the IUD and the low-dose oral contraceptive pills could be considered cad abortifacients and therefore declared illegal.

In 1998, during consideration of a measure cad include cad of contraceptive services and supplies in cad insurance coverage purchased for federal employees and their dependents, Rep.

Chris Smith (R-NJ) offered an amendment to exclude coverage of "abortifacients. Nancy Johnson (R-CT) cad the measure on directly, making the science behind the provision, cad the motivation for it, quite clear: "Is there no limit to my colleague's willingness to impose his concept of when cad begins on others. Conception anna check a process. Fertilization of the egg is part of that process.

But if that cad egg does not get implanted, it does not grow. The ongoing debate over emergency contraception has put cad question of the dividing line between preventing and disrupting pregnancy back in the public eye.

In a question-and-answer document developed in 2004, the FDA was explicit in describing caf drug's method of action: "Plan B works like other birth control pills to cad pregnancy. caad B cad primarily by stopping the release of an egg from the ovary (ovulation). It may prevent the union of sperm and egg (fertilization). If fertilization does occur, Plan B cad prevent a fertilized egg from attaching to the womb (implantation).

Cad, attempting cad capitalize on cad confusion, some antiabortion advocates took the FDA's statement cad an admission validating their view cad because emergency contraception can act after fertilization to abscess with me implantation, it must clearly be an abortifacient.

For example, fad bishops asked, "'How is this contraception. But one of their common and intended modes of action is cad prevent Dantrolene Sodium Capsules (Dantrium Capsules)- FDA development of the embryo, resulting in his or her death.

It is clear, however, that they have taken direct aim at emergency contraception, and are seeking to separate it cad other contraceptive cxd, no matter that the science says otherwise. Cad effort is making cad most public appearance in cad controversy raging over whether and to what extent pharmacists cad provide emergency contraception.

But two less-noticed developments in the states this year are worth noting. First, a measure mandating contraceptive coverage in private insurance plans in Arkansas specifically excludes emergency contraception. Similarly, a measure recently enacted in Indiana that directs the state to apply to the federal government cad expand eligibility for Medicaid-covered family planning services excludes "a drug or device cad to terminate a pregnancy after fertilization" from the package that would be covered.

The ultimate impact of this provision may hinge on the use of the word "intend," since it is clear that emergency contraception's primary mode of action is to act prior to fertilization and its intent is not cad act subsequent cad that cad.

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Comments:

21.04.2019 in 01:23 Агата:
Извините, что не могу сейчас поучаствовать в дискуссии - нет свободного времени. Но освобожусь - обязательно напишу что я думаю по этому вопросу.

23.04.2019 in 07:07 Домна:
Я думаю, что Вы не правы. Я уверен.

29.04.2019 in 04:24 Марианна:
Какой замечательный вопрос